Evolution of the Management Thinking and the Organizational
Behavior - Part 2
Changes Produced by the Industrial Revolution
The appearance of the steam machine, later improved by more efficient others, produces a basic and fundamental change on the work relationships. According to Fernández Tuneu the situation of the craftsmanship "quite harmonious, becomes deeply compromised and modified when the steam machine appears."
-The machines are very expensive and the contribution of more than one person is required to obtain the necessary capital to establish a factory and pay the workers. The Master Craftsman, in some cases becomes a businessman. The apprentice becomes a worker and looses the expectations of progressing since he could hardly become a boss.
-The workshops are very big; work is done in an environment that is very impersonalizing and unpropitious for the group cohesion. Working conditions are unhealthy, with working days that can be of up to 14 or 16 hours. The salary was very low and women and children obtained an even lower salary.
-There is a lost of identity between the worker and his work, since his participation is brief within the production process. He can be a while work day repeating the same movements or pulling the same handles, and loses the identity between his work and the final product. He doesn't feel fulfilled as a human being. There is no motivation.
According to Fernández Tuneu, "Is then that a great amount of conflicts and difficulties appear within the production relationships which as we will see further on have been analyzed by different management thinking trends, all of them looking for a way to be able to make that the worker would be interested for his work, and for him to demonstrate somehow affection for the work and therefore support to the organization."
It wasn't fortuitous the fact that the Industrial Revolution - which required a strong development of the capitalism to be viable- expanded with greater strength in mainly protestant countries. Max Weber did a deep analysis of this topic and established that it was the protestant ethic, and not the catholic, which allowed the appearance of the great capitals so necessary to allow the creation of big factories. According to that ethic men was directly responsible for his acts in front of God, there was no mediators or earthly exoneration for the done sins. The protestant has to be frugal and austere about his earthly goods' expenses, which allowed him to accumulate capital, which wasn't a sin by itself.
In such circumstances was that in the United States appeared very vigorously the so-called Scientific Management, whose creator was Frederick W. Taylor, and which was rapidly expanded to other countries (including the Soviet Union) with a generalization of its application.
However, there was specialists who maintained,
in some cases, a different vision: see as an example the work of M.
Parker Follet, and others who opted for moderating the Taylor's model
which had a mainly mechanicist character and which tended to the robotization
of the workers, as it was the case of Henry L. Gantt and the spouses
Gilbreth, contemporary disciples of Taylor.
In France, in parallel with the above mentioned authors, Henri Fayol developed his classic school of Industrial and General Management.